Why is CSS Needed?
The Scientific Method
Progress in understanding the physical world accelerated when men like
Galileo, Newton, Faraday and Maxwell began to study nature and look for
order and principles to explain what they saw. The great scientists put
aside their biased opinions and agreed on an objective standard of
validity. They sought for truth, and insisted that a scientific
assertion must be in full agreement with the observed and measured
facts. Scientific propositions also had to be consistent with all the
known laws of physics.
The Electromagnetic Nature of
A hundred years ago most scientists would were of the opinion that the
universe was primarily electromagnetic in nature. This was due to the
astounding successes that had been made in the field of electrodynamics
by Ampere, Faraday, Gauss, Maxwell and others in explaining many
New Scientific Theories
Problems With the New Scientific
At the turn of the century, significant new phenomena such as blackbody
radiation, the photoelectric effect, and the spectra of hydrogen were
discovered. These phenomena were discovered over such a short period of
time that scientists of the day were not able to adequately adapt
classical electromagnetic theory to incorporate them. Instead, new
theories such as relativity theory, quantum mechanics, the theory of
the atom, and elementary particle theory were introduced to supplement
what could not be explained by electromagnetic theory.
Interestingly, the new theories didn't immediately resolve the
difficulties either. In fact they introduced new problems and
inconsistencies of their own. For example:
Physical models of
matter were replaced with mathematical equations.
- Postulates were adopted that were known to
violate the empirical laws of electrodynamics.
- Cause and effect relationships were replaced
with random chance events.
- Force laws with no empirical basis were
postulated in order to make the new theories of matter work.
Despite these issues,
the new theories took hold and relativity theory and quantum mechanics,
as embodied by the standard model of elementary particles, are
generally touted as among the most successful theories of the century.
Sense Science (CSS) Emerges
At the end of the 20th century, Barnes, Bergman, Lucas and others began
to build on the older classical work that had been largely abandoned
nearly a hundred years earlier. Working outside the mainstream physics
establishment, their common goal was to correct what they perceived as
deficiencies in modern physics by reapplying what they deemed to be
sound scientific methods in order to develop better fundamental
theories of the elementary particles, atoms and the forces between
these objects. By striving to maintain the principles of reality,
causality and unity throughout their work, they hoped to bring "common
sense" back to the field of physics. The expression "common sense", in
this context, alludes to their belief that physics, even at the atomic
scale, ought to be intuitive and consistent with the laws of physics
that are commonly observed on laboratory scales.
Purpose of this Website
It is now midway through the first decade of the 21st century and the
CSS scientists believe they have come up with a sound basis to develop
more credible models of matter that more effectively answer the big
questions in physics and resolve the shortcomings they saw with the
principle theories of modern physics. This site provides an overview of
their work and seeks to demonstrate the reasons for their confidence in
this new approach. We hope you will seriously investigate the CSS
method and models, hold them up to rigorous scrutiny and ascertain for
yourself if the approach yields scientific models that are consistent
with scientific observations.