Why is CSS Needed?

The Scientific Method
Progress in understanding the physical world accelerated when men like Galileo, Newton, Faraday and Maxwell began to study nature and look for order and principles to explain what they saw. The great scientists put aside their biased opinions and agreed on an objective standard of validity. They sought for truth, and insisted that a scientific assertion must be in full agreement with the observed and measured facts. Scientific propositions also had to be consistent with all the known laws of physics.

The Electromagnetic Nature of the Universe
A hundred years ago most scientists would were of the opinion that the universe was primarily electromagnetic in nature. This was due to the astounding successes that had been made in the field of electrodynamics by Ampere, Faraday, Gauss, Maxwell and others in explaining many natural phenomena.

New Scientific Theories Introduced
At the turn of the century, significant new phenomena such as blackbody radiation, the photoelectric effect, and the spectra of hydrogen were discovered. These phenomena were discovered over such a short period of time that scientists of the day were not able to adequately adapt classical electromagnetic theory to incorporate them. Instead, new theories such as relativity theory, quantum mechanics, the theory of the atom, and elementary particle theory were introduced to supplement what could not be explained by electromagnetic theory.

Problems With the New Scientific Theories
Interestingly, the new theories didn't immediately resolve the difficulties either. In fact they introduced new problems and inconsistencies of their own. For example:
  1. Physical models of matter were replaced with mathematical equations.

  2. Postulates were adopted that were known to violate the empirical laws of electrodynamics.
  3. Cause and effect relationships were replaced with random chance events.
  4. Force laws with no empirical basis were postulated in order to make the new theories of matter work.

Despite these issues, the new theories took hold and relativity theory and quantum mechanics, as embodied by the standard model of elementary particles, are generally touted as among the most successful theories of the century.

Common Sense Science (CSS) Emerges
At the end of the 20th century, Barnes, Bergman, Lucas and others began to build on the older classical work that had been largely abandoned nearly a hundred years earlier. Working outside the mainstream physics establishment, their common goal was to correct what they perceived as deficiencies in modern physics by reapplying what they deemed to be sound scientific methods in order to develop better fundamental theories of the elementary particles, atoms and the forces between these objects. By striving to maintain the principles of reality, causality and unity throughout their work, they hoped to bring "common sense" back to the field of physics. The expression "common sense", in this context, alludes to their belief that physics, even at the atomic scale, ought to be intuitive and consistent with the laws of physics that are commonly observed on laboratory scales.

The Purpose of this Website
It is now midway through the first decade of the 21st century and the CSS scientists believe they have come up with a sound basis to develop more credible models of matter that more effectively answer the big questions in physics and resolve the shortcomings they saw with the principle theories of modern physics. This site provides an overview of their work and seeks to demonstrate the reasons for their confidence in this new approach. We hope you will seriously investigate the CSS method and models, hold them up to rigorous scrutiny and ascertain for yourself if the approach yields scientific models that are consistent with scientific observations.