Resources and Further Information About the Charge Fiber Model

Resources: Further details about the older Ring Model can be found at the Common Sense Science website. The site includes an overview of various Models of Matter, a brief History of Science and notes on the Philosophy of Science that pertain to the subject of elementary particles. Under the Resources tab you can sign up for their quarterly Newsletter and download copies of the research papers and lead newsletter Articles. The more recent material by Lucas on the Charge Fiber Model is summarized in the links coupled with this survey and in the papers referenced below (which can also be found in the "Resources/Newsletters and Articles" section of the CSS website).

Publications and Papers: Common Sense Science publishes much of it's work in the form of conference papers and white papers that are available on their website. The titles, abstracts and links to download the most important articles and papers are available below. Note: The papers represent a "work in progress" and newer material supersedes older work. In general, the newer material is more detailed, more comprehensive and more accurate, but in some cases it may actually contradict some aspects of earlier work. In addition, many aspects of the model are incomplete and sometimes the researchers are not in complete agreement with each other's findings. These are signs of progress and to be expected when tackling such a large body of material. Some of the older works are still available because they contain valuable background on the development of the model.

Personnel: Scientists and engineers currently involved in this work include Dave Bergman, Glen Collins, and Charles Lucas. We welcome input from the scientific and academic communities and invite others to join us in our endeavor to understand the world around us and develop accurate and useful models.

Title Abstract
Derivation of the Universal Force Law - Part 4
Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
Feb 2007

Derivation of the Universal Force Law (4 Parts): A new universal electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss's laws, Ampere's generalized law, Faraday's law, and Lenz's law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electromagnetic force law incorporates the effects of the self-fields of real finite-size size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It can account for gravity, inertia, and relativistic effects including radiation and radiation reaction. The non-radial terms of the force law explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents, the tilting of the orbits of the planets with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun, and certain inertial gyroscope motions. The derived force law satisfies Newton's third law, conservation of energy and momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach's Principle. The mathematical properties of equations for the fundamental empirical laws and also Hooper's experiments showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance. The Lorenz force is derived from Galilean invariance. The most general form of the force law, derived using all the higher order terms of the Galilean transformation , is assumed to be exact for all phenomena on all size scales. Arguments are given that this force law is superior to all previous force laws, I.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamics, gravitation, inertial, strong interaction and weak, interaction force laws.

Derivation of the Universal Force Law - Part 3
Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
Nov 2006
Derivation of the Universal Force Law - Part 2
Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
Aug 2006
Derivation of the Universal Force Law - Part 1
Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
May 2006.
Fine-Structure Properties of the Electron, Proton and Neutron
David L. Bergman
Feb 2006
Fine-Structure Properties of the Electron, Proton and Neutron: Using the helicon model, properties of the electron, proton and neutron were calculated and updated, accurate to about five significant figures. The Helicon Model of Elementary particles makes highly successful predictions based on the partitioning and conservation of energy and accurately accounts for all mass, energy and angular momentum (spin) without necessitating the insertion of a neutrino. A new analysis of neutron beta-decay shows the physical mechanisms at work inside the neutron before, during and after disintegration by emission of the electron.
Electron Wave Function Electromagnetic Waves Emitted by Ring Electrons
David L. Bergman
Aug 2005
Electron Wave Function - Electromagnetic Waves Emitted by Ring Electrons: A mathematical model (the Schrödinger Equation) and a physical model (Spinning Charged Ring Model) of the electron are compared for their ability to predict waves emitted by electrons.
Although it is a fundamental postulate of Quantum Mechanics, the Schrödinger Equation does not allow for an interpretation of wave-functions as physical waves, cannot be a complete theoretical description of a micro physical system, neglects intrinsic characteristics of particle motion, and fails in several other ways to correspond to physical reality.
The Ring Model of Electrons makes accurate and complete predictions of fields and waves by using the locations and internal motions of charge elements that make up the electron in order to determine the external fields of the electron. The physical Ring Model, compliant with the law of cause and effect, explains the meaning of Planck's Constant and accurately predicts the Photoelectric Effect, wavelengths of hydrogen line spectra, blackbody radiation, and the Compton Wavelength.
An unbiased assessment of these facts implies that electrons are small physical particles that closely resemble the Spinning Charged Ring Model, and these electrons are a source of electromagnetic waves.
A Classical Electromagnetic Theory of Elementary Particles Part 2, Intertwining Charge-Fiber
Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
May 2005

A Classical Electromagnetic Theory of Elementary Particles (Part 2): A new classical electrodynamics approach is presented in this paper to explain the existence of all the observed elementary particles, their internal symmetries, their principal decay modes and their principal interactions. This classical approach is based on the plasma physics experiments of Winston Bostick with plasmons that indicate how continuous charge-fibers exist without radiating energy and can be combined to build larger complex stable structures with great tensile strength.
In particular, a model consisting of classical electromagnetic intertwining charge-fibers in continuous loops is presented that explains the existence of all the observed elementary particles. It explains the physical origin of the 6 quarks and 6 leptons of the Standard Model. Furthermore it explains the physical origin of the 26 dimensions of the String Theory and the 10 dimensions of the Supersymmetric String Theory. Finally it explains how 6 of the Supersymmetric String Theory dimensions curl up to be non-observable.
Democritus defined the "atom" to be the smallest piece of matter with hooks on it to hold things together. If he had only closed the hook to form a loop, he would have gotten it right! The tiny closed charge-fiber loop is the real "atom" of matter. This initial draft of a new purely classical electromagnetic model of elementary particles appears capable of accomplishing the scientists' goal of a unified theory of elementary particles and forces in a simply elegant manner with Platonic beauty. It is significant to the Judeo-Christian community, because it is purely electromagnetic in origin in agreement with their Scriptures. Also the model shows remarkable symmetry in the design of elementary particles uniquely identifying them with the triune Creator-God. The model is based on the Biblical and classical notion of cause and effect instead of the random chance of Quantum Theory. It has strong cosmological implications.

A Classical Electromagnetic Theory of Elementary Particles Part 1, Introduction
Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
Nov 2004
A Classical Electromagnetic Theory of Elementary Particles (Part 1): At the beginning of the Twentieth Century, the electron, proton, and neutron were discovered and identified experimentally. From cosmic ray experiments and accelerator experiments, this initially satisfying list of elementary particles has been expanded to include six spin-½ leptons, nine spin-½ baryons, four spin-3/2 baryons, twenty spin-0 pseudo-scalar mesons, and seven spin-1 vector mesons, plus the antiparticles of each.
The first theoretical approach to order all of these particles in a systematic way in terms of certain internal symmetry properties was the Standard Model of Elementary Particles. It was based upon six hypothetical unobserved spin-
½ particles called 'quarks'. All of the heavy elementary particles called hadrons are formed from these quarks. In this model the strong interaction is mediated by the exchange of gluons, the electromagnetic interaction is mediated by the exchange of photons, and the weak interaction is mediated by the exchange of W± and Z0 particles.
In the Standard Model, use of the Higgs mechanism for symmetry breaking allowed the electromagnetic and weak force to be combined into the electroweak force. In a similar way the Higgs mechanisms allows the strong interaction to be unified with the electroweak. An attempt to unify all of the forces in nature, including the gravitational force, has lead to a string theory of 26 dimensions that can be represented by a ten-dimensional rotating string theory assuming supersymmetry. One of these dimensions is time.
Both the Standard Model and the Superstring Model of Elementary Particles are closely integrated with cosmology and the Big Bang Theory of the origin of the universe. This approach represents the earth and the universe as very old compared to Biblical revelation. Furthermore, there is no role for God in creating or daily sustaining the universe. The universe supposedly came about as a chance quantum fluctuation that produced the "big bang". According to this approach, the design of the universe is inherent in the properties of the elementary particles that resulted from the "big bang". All matter and life itself are built from these elementary particles. Their inherent properties are supposed to determine the design of all matter and the nature of living things.
The Law of Cause and Effect Dominant Principle of Classical Physics
David L. Bergman and Glen C. Collins
Aug 2005

The Law of Cause and Effect: For thousands of years, the law of cause and effect guided scientific inquiry. In fact, the history of the concept of causality can be traced through Hebrew, Babylonian, Greek and European cultures. Certain Greek philosophers, however, introduced the atomistic concept of chance-events to oppose the common-sense application of causality. The resulting conflict between cause versus chance has not only shaped the history of science but has imposed lasting effects on Western culture as a whole. This conflict intensified during the Twentieth Century as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP) became the leading tool of the proponents of chance. More recent findings have now demonstrated that the HUP fails in six actual cases. Common Sense Science counters chance-based philosophy by returning to causality and other principles of Classical Science such as the conservation of energy and the use of physical finite-sized models for fundamental particles (e.g., the electron). This paper shows how physical models based on the laws of electricity and magnetism fully implement the law of cause and effect in the manner of the four causes required by Aristotle. Chance-based physics is exposed as false science based on erroneous assumptions about supposed chance-events instead of causal relationships.

Observations of the Properties of Physical Entities Part 2 - Shape and Size of Electron, Proton and Neutron
David L. Bergman
May 2004

Observations of the Properties of Physical Entities (Part 2): Part 2 cites and presents experimental data that reveal the existence, shape, and size of electrons, protons and neutrons. The Helicon Model of Elementary Particles is defined as a toroidal helical structure of charge fibers (one or more) that account for the electromagnetic energy (excited states) of elementary particles. The helicon is a physical model of a durable particle with specific geometry that describes its shape and size. A careful interpretation of scattering experiments performed by Arthur Compton and Robert Hofstadter gives precise agreement with the thin, flexible ring predicted by the Helicon Model. Plasma experiments of Winston Bostick, and S.C. Hsu and P.M. Bellan, provide additional data that support the Helicon Model of Elementary Particles.

Observations of the Properties of Physical Entities Part 1 - Nature of the Physical World
David L. Bergman
Feb 2004

Observations of the Properties of Physical Entities (Part 1): Knowledge of nature has been acquired through common experiences and controlled laboratory experiments. When the order of physical encounters becomes evident, the expected outcomes of physical events and processes are formulated into general concepts, axioms, and laws of nature to provide understanding of the nature of things in the universe. Observations of the properties of physical entities divide simply into two groups: general concepts called "laws" and specific features of entities called "properties". Part 1 of this report deals with the laws - leaving the properties for a later report. In Part 1, the laws of nature are listed, referenced, and explained in relation to the Ring Model and the Standard Model of Elementary Particles.

Unification of Physics Theory of Everything
David L. Bergman
Nov 2003

Unification of Physics - Theory of Everything: The main goal of Common Sense Science is to develop a unified theory that explains the structure of matter and predicts its motions by a single force law. A Theory of Everything has broad appeal among physicists: "Many scientists now believe that a TOE is a distinct possibility in the near future. It would be prudent, then, to ask just what one might expect of a theory that seems to cover 'everything' in its wake. Davies and Brown have considered just this question (Davies and Brown, Superstrings, A Theory of Everything). Their criteria are simple. A TOE must explain (1) matter, (2) the forces affecting matter, and finally (3) the space-time framework of matter as well as unify the quantum and relativity theories... The foremost task in theoretical physics must be to unify the quantum and relativity, the discrete and continuous aspects of physical reality and nature...[1]"
Criteria (1) and (2) are undoubtedly legitimate. But criterion (3) has been intractable, and this writer sees no possibility or value in integrating theories known to be flawed, not matter how popular they may be. Even Einstein was unable to "create a Theory of Everything, a comprehensive set of equations to describe all matter and energy in the universe... Einstein's failure arose from the incompatibility between his Theory of General Relativity (which explains the behavior of matter over large scales) and Quantum Mechanics (which tells un how small things like atoms and electrons work)." [2]
A TOE must include physical mechanisms for the exchange of energy and explain forces; arguments from energy alone are usually inadequate without a mechanism for the exchange of energy. Without the causal relationships imbedded in mechanisms, deductions from the considerations of energy alone are inconclusive. Our approach integrates a deformable physical model with its self-field, neither of which can exist without the other. I will explain below just how a particle and fields are brought together in a single notion of wave-particle duality.

A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei - Part 4 Blackbody Radiation and the Photoelectric Effect
Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
Aug 2003

A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei (4 Parts): A physical geometrical packing model for the structure of the atom was developed [1-8] based on the physical toroidal ring model of elementary particles proposed by Bergman [9]. From the physical characteristics of real electrons experimentally determined by Compton [10-12] this work derived, using combinatorial geometry, the number of electrons that pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements. The constraints used in the combinatorial geometry derivation were based upon simple but fundamental ring dipole magnet experiments and spherical symmetry. From a magnetic basis the model explained the physical origin of the valence electrons for chemical binding and the reasons why the Periodic Table has only seven periods.
The toroidal model was then extended to describe the emission spectra of hydrogen and other atoms. Use was made of some of the author's standing-wave experiments with large toroidal springs. The resulting model accurately predicted the same emission spectral lines as the Quantum Model including the fine structure and hyperfine structure. Moreover it went beyond the Dirac and Bohr quantum models of the atom to predict 64 new lines or transitions in the extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of hydrogen that have been confirmed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Physics Lab at Berkeley from its NASA rocket experiment data [13].
In this work blackbody radiation and the photoelectric effect are explained in terms of the Ring Model and electromagnetic waves. Here the emphasis is on the atom consisting of finite-size electrons acting as containers with quantized internal standing-wave-type structures for absorbing and emitting electromagnetic waves - in contrast to the notion of quantized packaging of electromagnetic energy into particles called photons.

A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei – Part 3 Spectral Lines
Joseph Lucas and Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
Feb 2003
A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei – Part 2 Structure of the Nucleus
Joseph Lucas and Charles W. Lucas, Jr.
A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei – Part 1 Structure of Atoms
Joseph Lucas and Charles W. Lucas, Jr.