Hydrogen Gas Molecule

Two ring electrons and two ring protons combine to form a molecule of Hydrogen gas (H2). Measurements of proton and electron magnetic moments in hydrogen gas indicate the proton is 658 times smaller than the electron.

Electrostatic and magnetic forces between the rings hold each ring in place. Each ring is like a dipole bar magnet with North and South poles that lock it to the rings nearest it.

A computer simulation of all forces between the rings showed the forces on a ring would be in balance at the positions shown which achieve a minimum of potential energy.