Physical Models of Atoms and Molecules
The Lucas Model of Atomic Structure [Galilean Electrodynamics 7:1,3-12 ( Jan/Feb,1996 )] predicts the approximate locations of electrons and protons found in the nucleus and shells of any atom.
The Lucas model has several advantages over previous models of the atom :
The model gives reasons for the so-called "magic-numbers" (2, 8, 18, 32 - the maximum number of electrons that can fit in a shell) .
The model explains why there are only seven rows in the Periodic Table of Elements.
The model explains why "radiation death" does not occur in atoms.
For the first time, the model correctly predicts the spins of all 1,500 nuclides that have been measured (other models are wrong for hundreds of nuclide spins).
The figure on the right illustrates the Lucas Model of the Neon-20 atom.
Ten electrons surround the nucleus at stationery positions in the atom.
A strong line of magnetic flux links two electrons in the first shell.
Eight electrons located farther from the nucleus fill the second shell.
The electrons are located on two great circles of a sphere.
When electrons are located on great circles, the symmetry of the atom
minimizes its magnetic moment and achieves a balance of forces on each
Eight electrons located farther from the nucleus fill the second shell. The electrons are located on two great circles of a sphere.
When electrons are located on great circles, the symmetry of the atom minimizes its magnetic moment and achieves a balance of forces on each electron.
This figure represents a filled outer shell of eight in Lucas atom (The nucleus and inner shell(s) are not included in the diagram). This shows how an imaginary cube would fit that figure.
The electrons are arranged so the magnetic
fields resulting from the spin of the electrons at the top form a
closed magnetic field, with an opposed field at the bottom. The blue rings
with arrowheads show the location and direction of the magnetic flux lines.
This figure illustrates a water molecule. The two electrons from the hydrogen atoms complete the shell of the oxygen atom and the protons enter an equilibrium position in one of the magnetic loops.
Water is a simple molecule, but the most simple
is the hydrogen molecule, as described by Lucas at
shown here, a carbon
molecule has an oxygen molecule sandwiched between two oxygen atoms. The carbon
atom shares two electrons
with each oxygen atom. The two magnetic loops provide a vital force that holds the molecule
The two examples shown above, cyclohexane
and benzene, illustrate the difference between a double bond and a single bond.
Cyclohexane has six single carbon bonds. Benzene has three
single bonds and three double bonds.
The case of iron is different than the others we have considered. The first one ( ferrous oxide ) the iron gives two outer shell electrons to the oxygen atom which leaves the outer shell of the iron empty. With the outer shell empty an inner shell of 14 electrons is exposed to the world. This is depicted by a ball. Also since that ball is not magnetically bound but only electrostaticly it will ionize very easily.
The second one (ferric oxide) the iron uses 3 electrons in the outer shell. This leaves only 13 in the next shell. We also find a different bonding structure. The oxygen on each end is the usual double bond The two bonds in the center are different. What looks like a double bond has the iron giving one electron to the oxygen and the oxygen giving 3 to the iron.
The third case (lodestone) is similar in structure to the ferric oxide with the same type bonding structure. However in this case the center iron uses only 2 electrons in the outer shell while the others use 3 electrons.
With sodium chloride the sodium has a shell of 8 with what I will call one floating electron in the next shell. The floating electron is easily loaned to the chlorine to complete its outer shell. The two atoms are held a space apart because of the repulsion of the electrons, with a small electrostatic bond to the nucleus. The major bonding force is magnetic. It sort of like I will hold hands but none of this hugging stuff. This structure ionizes easily.